Research & Insights

The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the shift to a new investment paradigm, characterized by near-zero interest rates, coordinated monetary and fiscal policy, and heightened internal and external conflict. While the pandemic was an accelerant, we believe this shift was inevitable and that the key elements of this new environment will remain long after the virus passes.
Because environmental, social, and governance considerations affect how economies are evolving and how markets are priced, we seek a deep understanding of the ESG issues that are pertinent to our investment approach. We also partner with institutional investors seeking to achieve financial outcomes and have environmental and social impacts within large, liquid, multi-asset portfolios.
Bridgewater has been visiting and studying the evolution of China’s economy and financial markets for more than 30 years. Over that time, decades of reform in China have resulted in one of the greatest economic transformations of our lifetimes. Explore Bridgewater's research on the topic.
Bridgewater is focused on understanding the historical cause-effect relationships of complex economic situations. As we look back at the events of 2008, we invite you to explore some of the crisis-era research and decision making that enabled our investment team to understand what drove the market and helped us weather the greatest financial storm of a generation.
Over twenty years ago Bridgewater Associates pioneered portfolio balancing concepts that came to fruition with the creation of the All Weather asset allocation strategy in 1996. Read more about the concept of balance that lies behind the Risk Parity approach.
The economy is like a machine. At the most fundamental level it is a relatively simple machine, yet it is not well understood. Below we explain timeless insights of how it works and share long term perspectives that illustrate these forces playing out.

Our Research Process

Throughout our history, Bridgewater has focused on building the best possible understanding of global economies and markets. These unique insights drive our innovative investment engine, deliver returns for our clients, and inform global economic policy.

On a mission to uncover timeless and universal investment principles, our unique meritocratic culture and cutting-edge technology allow us to systematize and compound our insights over time so that our collective understanding is greater than that of any individual.

As a global macro-investment manager, we take a diversified approach spanning more than 150 different markets. With deep expertise in portfolio construction and risk management, we develop insights and design strategies to deliver value to our clients through any economic environment.

Selected Insights from Our Research Library
August 26, 2021
Bob Prince
Co-CIO Bob Prince describes why bond markets have been a poor predictor of changes in Fed policy.
August 25, 2021
Karen Karniol-Tambour, Elena Gonzalez Malloy
Under current policies, we expect no decline in oil consumption for years. Pay attention to whether government action going forward will meaningfully reduce demand for oil — through carbon taxes or subsidies for alternative energy sources.
July 15, 2021
Greg Jensen, Jason Rotenberg, Nina Lozinski
We think the 2020s are unlikely to be anything like the 2010s, and yet, that is what is discounted when we look at the combination of low rates and inflation.
July 8, 2021
Jeff Gardner, Jim Haskel
Most investors are used to equities and bonds being negatively correlated and highly diversifying, but that relationship is unstable and may reverse, especially if easy fiscal and monetary policy flows through to higher-than-expected inflation. In this discussion, Bridgewater Daily Observations Editor Jim Haskel and Senior Portfolio Strategist Jeff Gardner explore the cause-and-effect dynamics at play.
August 3, 2021
Karen Karniol-Tambour
Co-CIO for Sustainability Karen Karniol-Tambour joins the "Invest Like the Best" podcast for a wide-ranging discussion covering equities, currencies, sustainable investing, and more. They also discuss Karen’s approach to building great teams and what it means to be a great mentor.
July 15, 2021
Karen Karniol-Tambour, Nikunj Jain
Have investors already piled into the companies most aligned with environmental and social goals, creating an ESG bubble? In a column published by the Financial Times, Co-CIO for Sustainability Karen Karniol-Tambour and Investment Associate Nikunj Jain explain why we suspect the shift into ESG stocks is only just beginning.
July 14, 2021
Karen Karniol-Tambour, Carsten Stendevad
At Bloomberg’s Sustainable Business Summit Global conference, CIOs for Sustainability Carsten Stendevad and Karen Karniol-Tambour discuss Bridgewater’s systematic approach to building portfolios that incorporate sustainability goals.
June 21, 2021
In a Bloomberg interview at the Qatar Economic Forum, Bridgewater Founder and Co-CIO Ray Dalio and former Treasury Secretary Larry Summers share their thoughts on the risk of inflation, what’s next for the US dollar, and the Fed’s difficult dilemma.
May 21, 2021
Erin Miles, Nassim Fedel, Jason Cheal
This stage of a recovery is usually bullish for equities because stronger growth outweighs tightening liquidity. In this research, Co-Lead of Equities Research Erin Miles and Investment Associates Nassim Fedel and Jason Cheal explain why today may be different.
May 12, 2021
In an interview with Bloomberg TV just moments after April’s historically strong CPI print, Co-CIO Greg Jensen discusses the growing inflationary pressures, likely policy responses, and implications on markets and economies going forward.
May 21, 2021
In an interview with Bloomberg TV, Director of Investment Research Rebecca Patterson breaks down recent Bitcoin volatility, its path to becoming “digital gold,” the risk of rising inflation, and the evolving correlation between stocks and bonds.
May 7, 2021
As part of a Barron’s centennial roundtable discussion, Co-Chief Investment Officer for Sustainability Karen Karniol-Tambour sheds light on how investors should think about the next 100 years. In this wide-ranging discussion with Tom Slater and Yahoo! Co-Founder Jerry Yang, Karen describes the role of government and policy, evolving geopolitical climate, digital revolution and future of money, and a shift toward impact investing.
May 13, 2021
In an interview with Top1000Funds, Co-CIOs for Sustainability Karen Karniol-Tambour and Carsten Stendevad discuss how Bridgewater is deploying its systematic research process to meet the challenges of investors who are seeking to build portfolios that pursue return and impact-oriented goals.
April 5, 2021
Karen Karniol-Tambour, Melissa Saphier, Rob Hurn
While there is nothing magical about geographic disparities, we find them to be a good way to illustrate how different pockets of the economy have performed over the recent expansion. By excluding the booming coastal cities from the rest of the US, it is easier to see just how large the “shortfalls” from maximum employment are in the bulk of the country.
April 8, 2021
Jim Haskel
In a conversation with The Scoop Podcast, Senior Portfolio Strategist Jim Haskel unpacks pandemic-driven market trends including how some investors are viewing Bitcoin as a potential storehold of wealth and inflation hedge.
April 1, 2021
Bob Prince
In an interview with Bloomberg TV, Co-CIO Bob Prince discussed the current economic environment, his outlook on the policy response and inflation, and the benefits of diversification between East and West.
April 30, 2021
Greg Jensen
Co-CIO Greg Jensen recently joined Bloomberg's "What Goes Up" Podcast to discuss the recent Federal Reserve meeting in the context of the broader paradigm shift in central banking, including a discussion of how this shift has supported assets, whether certain financial markets are now in a bubble, and what the risks ahead are for economies and markets.
March 13, 2021
Co-CIO Bob Prince warns that the recent sell-off in US government bonds could accelerate if the Fed bumps into constraints, in a shift that threatens high-flying assets including blank check companies and cryptocurrencies. Bob explains that a new phase of the downturn in the $21tn Treasury market or risks to the dollar could loom as economic growth improves and inflationary pressures push the Federal Reserve into having to choose between keeping bond yields from rising or letting them go.
March 16, 2021
Karen Karniol-Tambour
Large, liquid public markets present many opportunities for investors seeking to incorporate environmental and social goals in their portfolios and create impact at institutional scale. Co-CIO for Sustainability Karen Karniol-Tambour discusses how investors can consider implementing sustainability assessments across asset classes at Top1000Funds Sustainability Digital 2021.
February 2021
Co-CIO Greg Jensen spoke at the MIT Sloan Investment Conference to discuss Bridgewater’s systematic decision making approach, the role of artificial intelligence in investment management, and the impact it will have on financial markets and economies going forward.
March 8, 2021
Director of Investment Research Rebecca Patterson joined Bloomberg to describe three key factors that will determine how high bond yields could rise.
February 24, 2021
Rebecca Patterson
Director of Investment Research Rebecca Patterson joined Bloomberg TV to discuss the prospect of rising bond yields and inflation, whether stock prices reflect bubble-like territory, and what’s required before investors can consider Bitcoin a reliable storehold of wealth.
March 8, 2021
Director of Investment Research Karen Karniol-Tambour joined CNBC’s "Closing Bell" to explain how the prospect of a strong post-virus recovery has created a dilemma for the Federal Reserve.
January 2021
Bob Prince, Ray Dalio, Greg Jensen
We invite you to explore excerpts from our 2021 Global Outlook, in which we lay out the key dynamics in markets and economies that we think will be particularly important in the coming years. We explore how the COVID-19 crisis has accelerated the transition into a new paradigm of zero interest rates, coordinated monetary and fiscal policy, and heightened internal and external conflict — and what this means for economies, markets, and investors.
February 2, 2021
Ray Dalio
Are we in a stock market bubble? Bridgewater Founder and Co-CIO Ray Dalio unpacks the framework he developed to answer this question when faced with changing markets.
January 28, 2021
Ray Dalio, Rebecca Patterson
With bond yields near zero and pressure on policy makers to diminish the value of fiat currencies, investors are increasingly looking for alternative storeholds of wealth. Bitcoin, the original cryptocurrency, has received a lot of attention as a potential candidate especially with its recent ascent to new historic highs. Our research team explores this topic.
January 27, 2021
Bob Prince
Co-CIO Bob Prince joins Bloomberg TV to discuss how the depreciation of cash and unattractive rates have created a risk of significant wealth destruction, forcing investors to look elsewhere for returns and causing a massive rebalancing of wealth between the East and West.
December 18, 2020
Director of Investment Research Rebecca Patterson joined Bloomberg TV to explain hedging currency risk, balancing assets to generate returns in a zero-interest rate environment, and the Fed’s role in helping facilitate economic growth in coordination with fiscal support looking ahead.
December 17, 2020
Take a look inside our weekly research meeting where Bridgewater’s co-CIOs and senior investors discuss some of the major questions we’re wrestling with. You will hear a brief discussion between Co-CIO Greg Jensen, senior investors Larry Cofsky and Jason Rotenberg, and Senior Portfolio Strategist Jim Haskel, on the different paths for Federal Reserve policy in 2021 given the economic recovery and the distribution of the COVID-19 vaccine. They also debate the future shape of the yield curve and implications for inflation-hedge assets such as gold.
November 2020
Ray Dalio, Kevin Rudd, David McCormick, Jim Haskel
The US-China relationship will undoubtedly be the most important bilateral relationship impacting the world over the next decade. In this three-part series, Bridgewater Founder and Co-CIO Ray Dalio, former Prime Minister of Australia Kevin Rudd, and Bridgewater CEO David McCormick put the US-China relationship in context. They explain how it has developed, what the major points of competition are, and how the evolution of this relationship may impact investors.
December 4, 2020
In a comprehensive interview with Barron’s, Director of Investment Research Karen Karniol-Tambour discusses the trends that will dominate the post-pandemic investment world, including diversification with interest rates at zero, the increasing power of fiscal policy, and what China’s latest five-year plan means for investors.
November 24, 2020
Director of Investment Research Rebecca Patterson joined CNBC to explain why the zero-interest-rate environment is causing investors to use large tech stocks as a way to get the kind of protection they used to get from bonds.
Directors of Investment Research Karen Karniol-Tambour and Rebecca Patterson and Co-Lead of Equity Research Erin Miles join CEO David McCormick to discuss our latest research initiatives and offer advice from their journeys to the top of Bridgewater’s investment team.
November 17, 2020
Co-CIO Greg Jensen joined Reuters’ “The Exchange” podcast with Anna Szymanski to discuss the paradigm shift the US faces as the era of monetary policy dominance ends and fiscal action becomes the major driver of growth. Greg describes the macroeconomic landscape, geopolitical tensions, and storeholds of wealth, encouraging investors to rethink their approach to asset classes.
The lack of volatility following the 2020 US election can be attributed to dominant forces shaping today’s markets and economics. Co-CIO Bob Prince joined “Squawk on the Street” to discuss these conditions, why the benefits of the liquidity don't affect all assets equally, and why a shift in politics is unlikely to ease these pressures.
November 10, 2020
Larry Cofsky, Richard Falkenrath, Kiran Rao, Yusuf Jailani
On the heels of promising vaccine news, we share perspective on the news itself and its ripple across markets. Chief Administrative Officer Richard Falkenrath and Head of COVID Task Force Kiran Rao discuss how the news is significant and the broader state of the pandemic right now. Richard is a former senior White House official who was at the center of the response to the SARS outbreak, and Kiran is a medical doctor who has previously done significant epidemiology work with the Gates Foundation and World Health Organization.
November 3, 2020
Bob Prince, Melissa Saphier
While the election is very important across many dimensions, it’s worth keeping in mind that the dominant forces shaping economic and market conditions remain the same — the virus is a huge and ongoing drag on spending, monetary policy is at the end of the line, policymakers are making cash as unattractive as they can, and the shift of economic power from West to East has accelerated. Co-CIO Bob Prince and senior investor Melissa Saphier explore where we stand with regard to these key conditions.
In an appearance on Bloomberg TV, Co-CIO Bob Prince asserted that the dynamics of the current prevailing economic forces will persist, and reiterated the importance of geographic diversification as the East and West continue to see divergent outcomes with respect to the impacts and response to COVID-19.
October 13, 2020
Rebecca Patterson
In a recent panel hosted by the Council on Foreign Relations, Director of Investment Research Rebecca Patterson was asked whether investors seem overly bullish about the prospects for a vaccine and pandemic recovery.
September 10, 2020
Greg Jensen, Melissa Saphier, Josh Lewin, Nikolai Doytchinov
Is the gold rally behind us? Why hold an asset that doesn’t offer any yield? Is it really wise to add exposure to such a small market? Greg Jensen and our research team address these questions, share some perspective on gold, and explore its unique role in protecting portfolios in the new paradigm — a world of ongoing pressure for policymakers across the globe to print and spend, zero interest rates that make bonds more or less dead weight, tectonic shifts in where global power lies, and conflict.
September 30, 2020
Jason Rotenberg, Kate Dunbar, Simiao Li
Though every global economy and market was largely subjected to the same first-order effects of the pandemic, China’s economy and assets have performed very differently than the rest of the world. This divergence highlights the value of geographic diversification, especially with regards to Chinese markets. Given its size, rapidly opening capital markets, unique position in the business cycle, and non-zero rates, tracking China closely has never been more important, and the diversification it offers has never been more valuable.
September 9, 2020
Karen Karniol-Tambour, Melissa Saphier, Yusuf Jailani, Jeremy Fraenkel
Even before the COVID-19 crisis, it was clear that traditional economic measures had increasingly diverged from social outcomes. Despite a decade of economic expansion and falling unemployment, social conditions deteriorated across a variety of measures. COVID-19 has brought these pressures to a head. Looking ahead, social conditions will have rising impacts on markets as policy evolves to more explicitly consider such issues in evaluating its goals. Fiscal policy is likely to take on a greater role in the decade to come, and is inherently distributional. The Fed, too, is increasingly taking into account social disparities.
Co-CIO Greg Jensen joined Squawk on the Street to discuss the degree and speed of policy response and its effectiveness, how outcomes may vary between markets and within the US economy, and investment considerations given the massive shift out of nominal bonds.
August 6, 2020
Greg Jensen, Jason Rotenberg, Jim Haskel
In the wake of the COVID-19 crisis, we have built out our framework for understanding economic policy going forward: what we call Monetary Policy 3. In short, with interest rates around the world at zero and traditional methods of monetary stimulus now ineffective, policy makers have been forced to turn to coordinated monetary and fiscal policy in order to engineer any hope for a sustained recovery. Senior Portfolio Strategist Jim Haskel sits down with Co-CIO Greg Jensen and senior investor Jason Rotenberg to discuss how we’re tracking MP3 implementation around the world, the divergences we’re seeing between countries, and the challenges policy makers are facing.
July 9, 2020
Greg Jensen, Mark Dinner, Melissa Saphier, Riley Edmunds
The rapid policy response to the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented speed of asset reflation. What took almost two years to achieve during the 2008 financial crash and almost four years during the Great Depression has unfolded in only one month during the current crisis. Co-CIO Greg Jensen and members of our research team explore the unique lengths and the potential limits of policy makers’ efforts to stimulate the economy.
June 19, 2020
Ray Dalio, Jim Haskel
The coronavirus has accelerated a new paradigm of coordinated monetary and fiscal policy where central banks are printing money to finance large budget deficits and spark spending. Senior Portfolio Strategist Jim Haskel and Co-CIO Ray Dalio explore why the by-product — zero or near-zero interest rates across the developed world — is a critical issue for investors to understand and how similar moments in history can provide valuable lessons to navigate volatility.
Co-CIO Ray Dalio joins David Brancaccio on NPR Marketplace Morning Report to discuss what should change in a post-pandemic economy and how capitalism can be restructured to better serve more people.
March 30, 2020
Greg Jensen, Jason Rogers
We have been describing an impending paradigm shift in economies and markets as the forces that drove the environment over the last decade have reached their limits. Co-CIO Greg Jensen and Jason Rogers from our research team examine how the shock of the coronavirus has accelerated a shift that we expected would unfold much more gradually over time.
Founder and Co-CIO Ray Dalio's study on the rises and declines of past leading empires puts today’s economic, political, and policy situation into perspective of the big picture.
In an opinion piece for the Financial Times, CEO David McCormick wrote about the elevated role megafunds play in financial markets and how blocking the flow of capital between them can have negative implications for the global economy — particularly during times of volatility.
Featured Research
We are constantly monitoring present day events and drawing lessons from history to shape and refine our understanding for how markets and economies work. Explore a collection of our research on topics ranging from China to debt crises.
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